Testicular Pain: Is it Serious? Signs and Symptoms to Watch For

Testicular pain can be distressing for men and often leads to worry and concern. While occasional discomfort may not be a cause for alarm, persistent or severe pain should never be ignored. In this blog, we will explore the various causes of testicular pain, ranging from mild to serious conditions, and discuss the signs and symptoms to watch for. Understanding the potential underlying causes can help individuals make informed decisions about seeking medical attention and ensure timely treatment when necessary.

Common Causes of Testicular Pain 

  1. Injury or trauma: Testicular pain can occur due to direct injury or trauma to the scrotum, such as from a sports-related impact or accidental injury. Bruising, swelling, and tenderness are common symptoms in such cases.
  2. Testicular torsion: This is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Testicular torsion happens when the spermatic cord twists, cutting off blood supply to the testicle. The pain is sudden, and severe, and may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
  3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle, can cause testicular pain. It is commonly caused by bacterial infections, which can be treated with antibiotics.
  4. Orchitis: Orchitis is the inflammation of one or both testicles, often resulting from viral infections such as mumps. It can cause pain, swelling, and tenderness in the testicles.
  5. Varicocele: A varicocele is the swelling of veins in the scrotum, similar to varicose veins in the legs. While it may not always cause pain, some men may experience discomfort or a dragging sensation in the scrotum.

Serious Causes of Testicular Pain 

  1. Testicular cancer: Although relatively rare, testicular cancer should be considered when experiencing persistent testicular pain. Other symptoms may include a lump or swelling in the testicle, heaviness in the scrotum, and back pain.
  2. Kidney stones: Kidney stones can cause referred pain, meaning the pain originating from the kidneys can radiate to the testicles. If accompanied by other symptoms like blood in urine, frequent urination, or pain during urination, kidney stones should be considered.
  3. Hernia: An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the intestine or fatty tissue protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal wall, causing pain in the groin area that may radiate to the testicles. A visible bulge or swelling may also be present.
  4. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Certain STIs, such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia, can cause testicular pain and discomfort. Other associated symptoms may include discharge from the penis, painful urination, or a rash on the genitals.
  5. Tumour or cyst: Non-cancerous tumours or cysts can occasionally develop in the testicles, leading to pain or discomfort. Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth.

When to Seek Medical Attention 

Symptoms of testicular pain can vary depending on the underlying cause. It’s important to pay attention to any changes or discomfort in the testicles and seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

  1. Pain or discomfort: Testicular pain can range from a dull ache to sharp, intense pain. The pain may be localised to one or both testicles or radiate to the groin, lower abdomen, or back.
  2. Swelling and inflammation: Inflammation of the testicles or surrounding structures can lead to swelling and enlargement of the scrotum. The affected area may feel tender or sensitive to touch.
  3. Changes in testicle size or shape: If you notice any changes in the size or shape of your testicles, such as enlargement or shrinkage, it could be a sign of an underlying condition.
  4. Redness or discolouration: Inflammatory conditions or infections can cause redness or discolouration of the scrotum or the skin overlying the testicles.
  5. Lump or mass: Discovering a lump or mass within the testicle or scrotum should always be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as it could be a sign of testicular cancer or other abnormal growth.
  6. Testicular hardness or firmness: In some cases, testicular pain may be accompanied by a sensation of hardness or firmness in the affected testicle.
  7. Groin or abdominal pain: Testicular pain can sometimes be associated with pain in the groin area or lower abdomen. This can occur if the pain radiates or if there is an underlying condition affecting both regions.
  8. Nausea and vomiting: Severe testicular pain, particularly in cases of testicular torsion, may cause nausea and vomiting.
  9. Urinary symptoms: Infections or conditions affecting the urinary tract, such as epididymitis, may be accompanied by symptoms like painful or frequent urination, blood in the urine, or a burning sensation while urinating.
  10. General malaise: Some individuals with testicular pain may experience overall feelings of discomfort, fatigue, or a general sense of being unwell.

Remember, it is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience testicular pain or any concerning symptoms. They can evaluate your condition, provide a proper diagnosis, and recommend appropriate treatment options.


In conclusion, testicular pain is a symptom that should never be ignored. While some causes may be relatively harmless and resolve on their own, others can indicate serious underlying conditions that require prompt medical attention. It is crucial to be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with testicular pain and to seek medical help when necessary.

Early detection and timely intervention can significantly improve outcomes, especially in cases where testicular torsion, testicular cancer, or other serious conditions are present. Taking your reproductive health seriously and seeking prompt medical care when needed is vital for your overall well-being.

By staying informed about the potential causes and symptoms of testicular pain, you can empower yourself to make informed decisions and take proactive steps towards maintaining your health. Remember, your health is important, and your well-being matters.

Dr. Sumit Sharma is an experienced urologist, andrologist, and kidney transplant surgeon with over 20 years of clinical experience. He is the founder of the Department of Urology at multiple hospitals in Gurgaon and has established successful kidney transplant programs across the city.

Here are some frequently asked questions about Testicular pain:

Q. Is surgery needed for testicular pain?

In general, surgery is not typically needed for most cases of testicular pain. The appropriate treatment for testicular pain depends on the underlying cause. Many causes, such as minor injuries, infections, or inflammation, can be managed with conservative measures like rest, pain medication, antibiotics, or anti-inflammatory medications.

Q. Who is the best Urologist in Gurgaon?

Dr. Sumit Sharma is an experienced urologist, andrologist, and kidney transplant surgeon with over 20 years of clinical experience. He is the founder of the Department of Urology at multiple hospitals in Gurgaon and has established successful kidney transplant programs across the city.

Q. How long does it take for testicular pain to go away? 

The duration of testicular pain can vary widely depending on the underlying cause. In some cases, it may resolve on its own within a few days or weeks, while in other instances, it may require medical intervention for relief.

For minor injuries or trauma, testicular pain can often subside within a few days or weeks with rest, ice packs, and over-the-counter pain medications.

If the pain is due to conditions like epididymitis, the duration of the pain can vary. With appropriate treatment, including antibiotics, rest, and pain management, symptoms often improve within a few days to a couple of weeks. However, it may take longer for the inflammation to fully resolve.

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